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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

GKEAT BRITAIN".
499
ore; but in each case the works is on tidewater, an important factor in a nation that depends on foreign trade. In other cases there are local conditions, as in Staffordshire and South Yorkshire, where, during long years and even centuries, there have grown up
TABLE XXIII-C. Output of Pig-iron in Great Britain; one unit=1000 tons.
District.			Average 1883 to	Average 1886 to	Average 1891 to	Average 1896 to	Average 1901 to
	1830	1870	1885	1890	1895	1900	1903
			incl.	incl.	incl.	incl.	incl.
Northeast Coast. .	5	1627	2619	'     2642	2638	3194	2963
West Coast ........		678	1603	1589	1284	1576	1486
Scotland .........	37	1206	1062	922	826	1128	1233
South Wales ......	278	1073	871	807	734	770	830
Eastern Central. . .		75	432	505	494	641	600
Staffordshire .....	213	892	550	542	506	586	556
Central ............	]8	180	437	388	417	521	508
South Yorkshire..	29	78	     260	197	213	296	276
Others .............	98	155	252	167	133	177	62
							
Total ...........	678	5964	8086	7759	7245	8889	8514
							
industries, like those of Sheffield and Birmingham, that call for large quantities of steel and iron to be worked into finished articles of commerce.
In considering the short distances covered by raw material it is necessary to remember that freight rates are much higher in England than in America. In 1900 the charge for carrying a ton of pig-iron from South Staffordshire to London, a distance of 120 miles, was from $2.40 to $2.90, and for carrying coke 100 miles from South Durham to Cumberland the rate was $1.80 per ton. In the United States the rate on pig-iron from Pittsburgh to* Philadelphia, in the same year, a distance of 353 miles, was $1.77. On coke between the same points'it was $1.95. The rate on coke is over three times as high as in America, while on pig-iron it is four to five times as much.
Both Scotland and Middlesbrough have specialties in the shipbuilding industries on the Clyde and the northeast coast. The vessels launched each year in. England foot up from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 tons, and, by a rough estimate, this means from 350,000 to 500,000 tons of steel and iron, or, say, one-twelfth of all the wrought-iron and steel made in the Kingdom-Table XXIII-B gives more information concerning the iron in-